The book of English trades and library of useful arts, London 1818, p295
Tin is the main constituent of pewter, and given Ashburton's association with tin it is not surprising that pewterers also worked in the town. Because tin is so soft, other metals, such as copper or lead, are mixed with it to make a suitable compound for forming into a variety of artefacts.
'In past centuries the Company laid down strict specifications for the alloy and up to the end of the eighteenth century monitored pewter manufacture throughout England.'
The Pewterers' Company has existed as a City Guild since medieval times.
Pewterers of a sufficient standard used a trade mark, called a touch mark, which often incorporated the maker's name or initials.
Pewter was used for plates, flagons, dishes, porringers - and 'from 1300 to 1800...was as familiar as china is today'.
http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/b/brass-pewter-and-cutlery-in-the-collections/ - Accessed 14-10-2015
'Costs and expenses. For a pewter pot which was lost, to John Mey - 15d'
'16d paid William Baron and 1 pewter dish as a reward from the parish.'
Churchwardens' Accounts of Ashburton, 1479-1580, Alison Hanham, Devon and Cornwall Record Society, Torquay, 1970, pp8,104
Some pewter items mentioned in connection with Devon at the National Archives: plates, noggin, mug, chamber pot, hoggin, flaggons, saucers and pewter linings for salt cellars.
In Walter Palke's will of 5th November 1677 the inventory of the effects of the deceased mentions ten pewter dishes, 16s.
Devonshire Parishes, Charles Worthy, vol 2,Exeter and London, 1889, p327
Photograph by the husband of Rachel Knowles of Regency History http://www.regencyhistory.net, to whom many thanks
Transactions of the Devonshire Association vol. 28 (1896)pp. 253 ff
Viewed through https://archive.org/. Accessed 15-11-2013***
Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information - extra information credited separately.
Richard Knowles, 1613
Thomas Knowles, 1631
On 22nd June 1635 Thomas Knowles married Xpiana Dyer at Ashburton.
Thomas Knowles jnr, 1647
Of Ashburton and Bristol.
Apprenticed to John Knowles and his wife Marie.
Lawrence Langworthy, born circa 1692
Died 19th October 1739 in Newport, Rhode Island. His memorial reads: 'In memory of Lawrence Langworthy of Ashburton in the County of Devonshire. Died Oct the 19 1739 in the 47 year of his age. Also of Mary his wife of Dartmoor in the County of Devonshire, died Jany the 15 1732-33 in the 37 year of her age.'
Database of the Pewter Society
On November 29th 1714 Laurence Langworthy, apprentice of [blank] pewterer, was entered onto the roll of Exeter Freemen.
Exeter Freeman 1266-1967, Devon and Cornwall Record Society, Exeter 1973, p225, available via https://familysearch.org
Lawrence Langworthy married Mrs Mary Southcott 29th August 1718, Widecombe in the Moor
England marriages 1538-1973 https://familysearch.org
An oblong pewter dish dated 1719, with two marks, touches of Lawrence Langworthy, is at the National Trust property of Arlington Court, Devon.
In 1722 the apprenticeship of John West was registered, to Lawrence Langworthy, pewterer, at Exeter.
Britain, Country Apprentices, 1710 - 1808, Society of Genealogists via http://search.findmypast.co.uk
Southcot, the son of Mr Lawrence Langworthy and Mary was baptised on the 8th June 1720, at St Mary Major, Exeter.
Mary, the daughter of Laurance Langworthy, was baptised on the 6th February 1721, at St Olave, Exeter.
A daughter of Lar: Langworthy, pewterer, was baptised on the 12th July 1723, at St Olave, Exeter.
A bell-metal posnet, marked by Lawrence Langworthy, Newport, dated 1730, sold at Christie's, New York, in 2012.
http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/furniture-lighting/a-bell-metal-posnet-marked-by-lawrence-langworthy-5526268-details.aspx - Accessed 29-03-2017
William Taynton, pewterer, mainly associated with Gloucestershire and Bristol, is listed as a voter in Ashburton in the 1774 Bristol poll book.
Ten years later, in 1637, a John Bone/Bonner was searched at Ashburton, ie representatives of the Pewterers' Company checked the quality of his wares. Bowls by Bonner were found in Thomas Cole's shop, and this is possibly the same Thomas as above.
Journal of the Pewter Society (Addnl), p56; Journal of the Pewter Society Aut 1996, p134. Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
Chamberpots by William Bourne of Ashburton were also found in Thomas Cole's shop in 1641. William was searched at Modbury Fair that year.
Journal of the Pewter Society (Addnl), p57; Journal of the Pewter Society Aut 1996, p134. Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
Porringers by Lawrence Langworthy of Ashburton were also found in Thomas Cole's shop. Lawrence was searched in 1637 and 1641.
Journal of the Pewter Society (Addnl), p60; Journal of the Pewter Society Aut 1996, p134. Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
In 1637 Lawrence Langworthye, East streate, paid 1s to the Ashburton Poor Rate, and Lawr Langworthie, East streete, paid 9d in 1644.
Lawr Langworthye, The Eaststreete, paid 1s in 1649
Devon Parish Taxpayers 1500 - 1650, Todd Gray, vol 1, Exeter 2015, pp86, 98, 102
Various entries for Lawrence Langworthy in the Ashburton parish registers. They may not be connected to the Lawrence Langworthy above:
Maria the daughter of Laurenti Langworthy was baptised on the 29th January 1616
Thomazina the daughter of Laurenci Langworthy was baptised on the 21st October 1619
Guilielmus the son of Laurenci Langworthy was baptised on the 9th September 1623
Lawrenci Langworthy married Jane Lang 8th September 1649, Ashburton
Jane the wife of Lawrenc Langworthy was buried 11 September 1650
Lawrenc Langworthy married Ane Pearce 4th December 1651, Ashburton
Ane the daughter of Lawrenc Langworthy was baptised on the 26th October 1652, Ashburton
Frances, the daughter of Laurence Langworthy was baptised on 9th July 1658, Ashburton
Laurence Langworthy was buried 29th December 1680, Ashburton. John Langworthy was one of those making an affidavit [that he had been buried in wool].
Journal of the Pewter Society (Addnl), p63 Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
In the same year Alexander Soper, possibly the same one, married Agnetia Stevens at Ashburton.
Agnis Soper, wife of Allexander, was buried 16th April 1666.
Boyd's Marriage Index
An Allexander Soper was buried at Ashburton 11th April 1674
The Dolbeare family
Bonhams stated that is was possible that the plate came from a lot of 266 pewter pieces from Cotehele sold by Sotheby's on June 1st, 1956.
Source quoted on the website: Journal of the Pewter Society, Vol. 40, Autumn 2014, pp. 36 - 39; and Vol. 18, Autumn 2002, p. 28 for an article entitled 'The Dolbeares of Ashburton'.
https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/2 - Accessed 12-10-2015
Below: More Cotehele pewter
A Nicholas Dolbeare married Claria Quint on the 29th November 1621, but there appear to have been two people with this name. A Nicholaus Dolbeare was buried 22nd March 1637 Ashburton, probably the Nicholas Dolbeare, tanner, who left a will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in 1638.
http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/D873236, PROB 11/177/246
In 1625 Nicholas Dolbeare, probably of the East streete (the list went on to a new page) paid 2s 2d to the Poor Rate of Ashburton. The next person on the list was John Dolbeare.
Nicholas Dolbeare, again probably of East streate, paid 7s in 1637.
Devon Parish Taxpayers 1500 - 1650, Todd Gray, vol 1, Exeter 2015, pp80, 87
Photographs by the husband of Rachel Knowles of Regency History http://www.regencyhistory.net, to whom many thanks
Bernard Dolbear, the son of Bernard, was baptized on the 19th August 1642
A Barnardus Dolbeare, the son of Johis, was baptized on the 7th September of the same year.
According to Family Search, Bernadus, the son of Johannis, died on the 20th August 1643
According to the Pewter Society, Bernard Dolbeare became a pewterer, working between c1660 and c1720
Journal of the Pewter Society Aut 2002, pp27 - 29 Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
Johnes Dolbeare, the son of Bernardi Dolbeare, was baptised 12th September 1683 (see John Dolbeare  below)
1644 John Dolbeare , pewterer, paid 2s 3d 'for the releyffe of the poore wth in the pish of Aishberton'.
Devon Parish Taxpayers 1500 - 1650, Todd Gray, vol 1, Exeter 2015, p92
Nicholas the son of John Dolber was buried 18th August 1651 - there may be no connection
25 Decemb 1655 The said John Dolbeare and Susanna Necke were married before Thomas Reynell esquire Justice of the Peace.'
Devon Banns Registers 1538 - 1915
Agnes the daughter of John Dolbeare pewterer was born 26th February 1657*
* Old calendar - we would say 1658
Barnard, the son of John Dolbeare, pewterer, born 15th November 1659
1661 Mary, the daughter of Jo. Dolbeare, pewterer, was baptized 28th November.
1662 John and Mary, the children of John Dolbeare, pewterer, were buried on the 2nd March.
John jnr. may have been the same John who was born on the 7th October, 1656, 'the sonne of John Dolbeare, pewterer.'
John, the son of John Dolbeare, pewterer, was baptised at Ashburton 12th May 1664.
Are the following records for a different John Dolbeare? It is possible that the term pewterer is used on other records to distinguish the two.
1657 'The agreement of marriage between John Dolbeare sonne of John Dolbeare the elder of this pish and Alice Fursman daughter of Thomas Fursman, also of this pish, was delivered unto the register 14th day of March 1656* and published three Lords daies followinge.
26 May 1657 The said John Dolbeare the young and Alice Fursman were married before Thomas Reynell Esq., Justice of the Peace.'
Devon Banns Registers 1538 - 1915, available through http://www.findmypast.co.uk
*Old calendar - we would say 1657.
John the son of John Dolbeare the younger was baptized in September 1661
By 1671 an Edmund Dolbeare*, pewterer, had emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts - he gave a deposition in a court case that year. It is thought he came from Ashburton, and at some stage his wife and two children, John and Joseph also arrived in Boston. John became a pewterer like his father, but also worked in brass and iron, and became extremely successful. Although Edmund's mark is unknown, John's was of three plumes, and some of his work survives. He features in Laughlin's book Pewterers in America.
http://msa.maryland.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc3500/sc3520/002100/002185/notes/steele.dir/parsonstech/genealogy/trees/jgordon/d106.htm#P210 - Accessed 12-10-2015
*An Edmundus Dolbear, son of Thomae, was baptized at Ashburton 25th August 1633.
An Edmundus Dolbeare, son of Johnis, was baptized 16th June 1644.
The Dolbeares of Boston, by Edward Doubleday Harris Esq.
'The writer has in his possession several memorandum books and files of business papers formerly belonging to three Boston merchants, John Dolbeare, his son Benjamin, and Benjamin's son John. Among them, in the handwriting of Benjamin Dolbeare, is a copy of a letter written to John Dolbeare, ironmonger, of Ashburton, England, which throws some light on the early history of the family here. It runs as follows:
Boston, New England, 28th August 1772.
Mr Benjn Dolbeare*, at Ashburton in O. England.
Sir, I have lately been informed by one Mr Row, who lives about 20 miles from your town, that you were alive and well when he left home, and you being the only relation that I have heard anything of in England, am desirous of having a correspondence with you...
The Founders, Portraits of persons born abroad who came to the colonies in North America before the year 1701, Charles Knowles Bolton, The Boston Athenaeum, vol III, 1926, p 773.
Memo. Ashburton is in the County of Devon, abt 20 miles from Plymouth & Exeter.
*I rec' a letter from him and his name is John, instead of Benjn.
It is apparent...that [the letter's] writer was in error as to the date of his grandfather's coming to Boston; it was doubtless later than 1664.'
The New England historical and genealogical register, Vol 47, 1893, p24ff
John the son of Bernard Dolbeare was born 22nd August 1683 and baptized 12th September. This is possibly John  below.
A plate circa 1710, sold by Bonhams in May 2010, bore the touchmark of John Dolbeare , Ashburton, Devon. His working dates were 1700-1713
https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/18081/lot/204/ - Accessed 12-10-2015
Various John Dolbeare marriages: John Dolbeare and Mary Winsor, both of the parish of Aishburton were married 10th February 1703
Woodland parish records
3rd December 1706 John Dolbear married Julian Western at Buckfastleigh
A John the son of John Dolbeare was buried at Buckfastleigh on December 10th 1713
Buckfastleigh Parish records
A John Dolbear married an Agnes Curtis at Ashburton in 1711
Boyd's Marriage Index 1538 - 1850
John Dolbeare, pewterer, was buried 17th May 1716
Agnes Dolbear of Ashburton swore an oath of loyalty to King George I at St Lawrence's Chapel 24th August 1723
Devon and Exeter Oath Rolls 1723 http://www.foda.org.uk/oaths/QS17/2/1/7a.htm - Accessed 5-04-2017
Agnes Dolbear, widow, was buried 3rd May 1737
A Mrs Agnes Dolbear, widow, was also buried 3rd November 1738
According to the database of the Pewter Society, the widow of John Dolbeare  worked between 1713 and 1762, and died before 1772 aged 82.
Journal of the Pewter Society Aut 2002, p27 -29. Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
John D Davis, in his book Pewter at Colonial Williamsburg, says that John Dolbeare, of Ashburton, Devon (1720-1750) had a touchmark of a rose with a crown above and a palm frond to either side, and J Dolbeare written below.
John D Davis, Pewter at Colonial Williamsburg, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2003, item 76
According to the database of the Pewter Society, Susanna Dolbeare worked between 1725 and 1762, dying unmarried circa 1770.
Journal of the Pewter Society, Aut 2002, p27 -29. Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
In 1768 Susanna Dolbear was granted a lease of messuages by Thomas Naylor, vicar of Ashburton
Tenements mentioned in Exeter Cathedral Library and Archives, D&C3570 P362
Mrs Susanna Dolbeare* was buried 20th April 1770
*This does does not necessarily mean that she was married
Susanna Dolbear of Ashburton left a will proved in the Consistory Court of the Bishop of Exeter in 1770 - no longer available, as Exeter wills were destroyed during bombing in WW2.
Fry, E.A. (ed.) Calendar of Wills and Administrations relating to the counties of Devon and Cornwall, proved in the Consistory Court of the Bishop of Exeter, 1532-1800. British Record Society Index Library Vol 46 (1914)
According to the database of the Pewter Society, John Dolbeare  worked between 1725 and 1735, dying unmarried at aged 30 in 1735
Journal of the Pewter Society, Aut 2002, p27 -29.
In H H Cotterell's Old Pewter: Its Makers and Marks, London, 1929. Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
A Mr John Dolbeare was buried at Ashburton 1st April 1735. No age is given in the parish register
John Dolbeare, son of Bernard Dolbeare, was baptized 9th August 1743.
Bernard was also the father of Bernard Dolbear, baptized 19th August 1746.
Bernard and Sarah Dolbeare were the parents of Susanna, baptized 17th December 1754
According to the database of the Pewter Society, John was John Dolbeare  who worked between 1762 and 1794.
Journal of the Pewter Society, Aut 2002, p27 -29. Many thanks to Steve Custons for this information
A John Dolbeare married Joan Winsor 22nd January 1770. Susanna Dolbeare was one of the witnesses.
On the 21st February 1774 the couple had a daughter, Susana, baptized at Ashburton.
In 1773 there was confirmation of a lease of messuages and tenements granted by Thomas Naylor, vicar of Ashburton, to John Dolbeare, pewterer
Tenements mentioned in Exeter Cathedral Library and Archives, D&C3571 P235
1780 'Consider my surprise, the next time I saw Mrs Nosworthy, she asked me whether I was not in Saunders' shop having my hair powdering, when unkle fabian was carried to his grave. This gave me the suspicion that J Dolbear carried the news, as he asked me in the shop whether I attended my unkles funeral or not, with some ernestness. This John Dolbera [sic] by trade a pewterer and brazier etc.'
Andrew Bennett's memorandum book, quoted in J S Amery's Presidential address, Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Assocation, vol 56, 1925, p85
1790 Confirmation of lease by Thomas Naylor, vicar of Ashburton to John Dolbeare (it is not certain that this is the same John Dolbeare).
Tenements mentioned in Exeter Cathedral Library and Archives, D&C3573 PP603-604
1794 'At Plymouth John Dolbeare esq., formerly an eminent brazier, of Ashburton, and for some years post-master at Plymouth.'
Gentleman's Magazine, vol76, p1156
John Dolbeare was buried at Charles the Martyr, Plymouth, 26th November 1794. 'Burying ground' is written beside the parish register entry.
In his will, proved in June 1795, he describes himself as being of Plymouth, gentleman. He wished to be buried 'in as private a manner as possible' and allocated 5 shillings each to 8 poor men to carry his coffin. He names nieces Mary and Sarah Thomas - daughters of his sister Susanna Thomas* - and his daughter Susanna Parham.
His messuages, lands, tenements and hereditaments were within Ashburton, Newton, Newton Abbot and Chudleigh.
*Susa Dolbeare and Jno Thomas were married at St Andrew, Plymouth, 24th December 1780
Plymouth parish records
1816 Joan Dolbear, widow aged 79, was buried June 27th
Joan Dolbeare, widow, left a will proved July 1816, in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.
Exeter Cathedral library and archive, item ref. D&C3571 P235
http://e90015uk.eos-intl.eu/E90015UK/OPAC/Index.aspx - Accessed 26-12-2015
March 1798 John Way and Henry Bowden were executors of the will of John Dolbeare  above. The vicar, Thomas Naylor, confirmed the lease of a cottage and tenement to the executors, for the lives of Susanna Parham, wife of Benjamin Parham of Plymouth Dock, Benjamin Parham the younger and his wife Susanna, and Solomon Tozer of Ashburton, clothier.
Exeter Cathedral library and archive, item ref. D&C3574 P578
http://e90015uk.eos-intl.eu/E90015UK/OPAC/Index.aspx - Accessed 26-12-2015
For the family connection between the Dolbeares and the Parhams, and later between Edward Cruse and the Parham family, see below.
The 1841 census shows Benjamin Parham, an attorney at
law aged about 70, living in West Street. With him is his 60 year old
wife Susanna, and another Susanna aged about 30. They are the next
household on from Thomas Foaden, innkeeper (ie the next household after
the London Hotel).
1841 census HO107, piece no. 253, folio 21, p34
'The residence of B Parham, Esq., in West Street, has been held by his family and the Dolbeares more than 300 years...'
Country Life Vol 101, p368
This would be a building, now demolished but remembered by many Ashburton residents, that stood in what is now the entrance to St Andrew's Close.
From my own collection.
My own photograph 2016
The 1871 census shows an Edward and Elizabeth Cruse living in West Street. Both are 50 years old.
They are still in the same property in the 1901 census.
1871 census RG10 piece no.2080 folio 70 p13
1901 census RG13, piece no. 2033, folio 10, p12
It is not always easy to precisely place properties on the census, but the proximity to the London Hotel suggests that this property is the one above that is now demolished.
In August 1905 Sawdye and Son sold a large amount of antique furniture, paintings and china from Paradise House in West Street, on the instructions of the representatives of the late E Cruse.
Western Times 18 August 1905 p2 col1
In the early 1900s P F S Amery wrote an article in Devon Notes and Queries about some oak panels from the 1500s, which were in a house belonging to one branch of the Prideaux family in Ashburton. According to Amery the house passed down to the Parham family and then to a Mrs Cruse, finally being sold in 1905 after the death of her husband.
The panels were in a small back room in a house in West Street, very close to the parish church. The back buildings and stable accessible from the left of the church gates; there was also a footpath under an archway that led to the same buildings. The old walled garden formed a boundary to the churchyard on the eastern end of the church.
Oak Carving at Ashburton in Tudor Days, P F S Amery, Devon Notes and Queries, undated, available to read for free from https://archive.org
See People and properties, 1600s and before, for more on the panels.
The family connections
Benjamin Parham, gentleman, had married Susanna Dolbeare at Stoke Damerel on the 29th January 1793. Benjamin was of Stoke Damerel parish, and Susanna was of Charles in Plymouth parish. The bride, a minor, was married with the consent of her father, John Dolbeare, who had declared his consent in person.
Susanna was Susana Dolbear, the daughter of John and Joan, baptized 21st February 1774 in Ashburton. A John Dolbeare had married Joan Winsor in January 1770, with a Susanna Dolbear as one of the witnesses.
The will of Joan Dolbeare, widow, proved at the PCC in July 1816, names Susanna Parham, the wife of Benjamin Parham, as her daughter. Also named are Benjamin Parham the younger, son of Benjamin and Susanna; John Dolbeare Parham, and Susanna Dolbeare Parham. Joan named a nephew, John Winsor, and her sisters Mary Sunter and Susanna Winsor.
Will of Joan Dolbeare
In 1820 Benjamin Parham brought a case went to the Court of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, accusing the curate of Ashburton, the Rev. John Templar, of altering a pew in the nave of the church. Parham claimed that the pew belonged to the Dolbeare family. During the case it was said '[Dolbeare] was not an unfit occupant of it from his respectability; though the number of his family did not entitle him to so large a seat, for he had a wife an only one daughter. Sometime after this he removed to Plymouth with his family, and they all continued there until his death...On the death of Mr Dolbeare his widow returned to the parish and placed herself in the seat...On the death of Mrs Dolbeare in 1816 Mr Parham, who had married her only daughter and succeeded to her property, seems to have considered that he had a title to this seat...'
The court ruled that the curate must restore the pew, but also stated that in future the family were only entitled to part of the pew, not all of it. Neither party in the case were satisfied with this ruling, and it went to appeal.
Reports of cases argued and determined in the Ecclesiastical Courts, Joseph Phillimore, vol III, London 1827, p223ff and p519
A memorial inside St Andrew's Church reads as follows: This tablet records the death of Benjamin Parham esq of Claines formerly judge of the county court of Worcestershire which happened on the 16th day of August 1861, in the 68th year of his age.
Also of Mary Palk, his wife who departed this life on the 10th day of September 1849 in the 62nd year of her age.
Also of Benjamin Parham esq of this parish father of the above who died at Hawford Lodge Worcestershire, on the 24th day of July 1851 aged 82 years.
Also of Susanna his wife who died on the 30th day of May 1843 aged 70 years.
Also of Rev John Dolbear Parham son of the last named Benjamin Parham who died on the 29th day of September 1858 aged 62 years.
Also of Susanna Dolbear Parham only daughter of the last named Benjamin Parham who died on the 20th day of September 1860 aged 58 years.
1863 Mr Edward Cruse, a paymaster of Victoria (London) Docks, married Elizabeth Elston on May 12th. She was the only daughter of the late Benjamin Parham, County Court Judge for Worcester. Miss Elston was described as the illegitimate daughter of Benjamin in a dispute after his death, reported in the same newspaper a year earlier.
Western Times 22 May 1863, p6 col2
Western Times 9 August 1862, p9 col1
Edward Cruse died in June 1905 and was laid to rest in the Parham vault.
Western Times 30 June 1905 p12 col5